Research is essential to ensuring a strong, sustainable and prosperous wine industry for Canada. The Canadian Vine Certification Committee is committed to initiating and supporting research into all aspects of grapevine health.
An investment of $ 8.4 million
On July 4, 2018, Mr. Lawrence MacAulay, Federal Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, announced an investment of $ 8.4 million in the Canadian Vine Certification Network (CVN) as part of the AgriScience program -clusters of the Canadian Agricultural Partnership .
The producers of grapes and wines unite.
For the first time, Canadian wine and grape organizations have come together under the name of the Canadian Vine Certification Network (CGCN). The objective of this new organization is to develop a national research center.
The research activities of the AgriScience Cluster are as follows.
Canadian Grapevine Certification Network
Scientific coordination involves the coordination and monitoring of the scientific and research activities of the cluster. This includes liaising between principal investigators, ensuring that research is focused on priorities, reviewing annual and final results reports, and assisting researchers in organizing and executing transfer activities. of Knowledge and Technology (KTT).
Field strategies to mitigate the impact of grapevine viruses in British Columbia
Jose Ramon Urbez-Torres and Tom Lowery
This activity builds on the work of the British Columbia GF2 AgriInnovation program, which places greater emphasis on the role of vectors in the spread of leafroll and red rust viruses. (red blotch) on long-term mitigation measures. Small batches of wine will be made from infected plants to assess the sensory impacts on the wine, which will be validated by sensory panels.
Viral diseases of the vine and the fight against viral vectors.
Wendy McFadden-Smith and Justin Renkema
Brock University and AAFC Vineland
Study Ontario vineyards for incidence rates of leaf curl virus (leafroll) and red blotch virus; determine the rate and mode of transmission; assess vector populations and their role; study the impact on plant physiology and fruit quality, develop a mitigation strategy for vector control.
Investigation and evaluation of viruses (GVLRa-1 and -3 and GVRBaV) and their effects on vines (including hybrids)
Investigate Nova Scotia vineyards for the presence of viruses; compare the performance of infected and uninfected vines; assess physiological parameters; investigation of the presence of virus vectors.
Evaluation of the cold resistance of the vine under climatic conditions of eastern Canada by applying various techniques
Caroline Provost and Gaétan Bourgeois
Mirable Agri-Food Research Center (CRAM) and AAFC St-Jean-sur-Richelieu
Three distinct sub-activities:
- develop a monitoring and modeling system for the resistance to cold of several different grape varieties;
- evaluate the protection systems (geotextiles) of grape varieties sensitive to cold;
- to evaluate the use of rootstocks to improve the cold resistance of hybrid grape varieties.
Factors influencing the cold tolerance of vines
Six objectives are to be studied:
- the effect of water stress over time, the selection of roots, the protection of the young vine and the senescence of the vine on hardiness;
- continue testing bud resistance and develop a model that can replace testing;
- continue to study the tissues of buds and phloem exposed to cold;
- explore the resistance of grapevine roots and the impact of cold wounds on them;
- evaluate the effect of grapevine disease on winter resistance;
- identify cold hardy vines for clonal selection.
Vine Assessment and Cold Resistance Program to ensure superior quality plant material to the Canadian Vine Certification Network and to improve the sustainability of the Canadian grape and wine industry
Jim Willwerth and Harrison Wright
Brock University and AAFC Kentville
The main objectives are:
- Evaluate vine plant material for performance, cold tolerance and quality and improve the sustainability of the entire grape and wine industry;
- Participate in the selection of top quality plant material for the Canadian Vine Certification Network and for future plantings in Ontario.
Evaluate the cost-effectiveness of canopy (vegetation cover) management practices to reduce disease pressure
Odile Carisse and Caroline Provost
AAFC St-Jean-sur-Richelieu and Agri-Food Research Center of Mirabel
- Survey of the Quebec wine industry to assess current plant cover management practices, in particular the different times, the level of exposure and the expected benefits of the producer;
- study the influence of canopy and fruit-bearing management practices on the microclimate, fungicide penetration (coverage effectiveness), disease progression, pathogen populations and yield losses (damage );
- adaptation of disease management decisions to canopy and fruit area management practices;
- determine the economics of canopy management practices for disease management and fruit quality using a cost / benefit analysis.
Optimizing Grape Production in Eastern Canada: Towards Understanding the Relationships Between Growing Conditions, Berry Maturation, Assessment of Berry Maturity and Wine Quality
Karine Pedneault and John DeLong
Université Sainte-Anne and AAFC Kentville
The objectives are:
- understand the impact of temperature on ripening, composition and sensory perception of berries in Vitis varieties grown in eastern Canada, using an experimental approach;
- optimizing harvest decisions to improve wine quality in eastern Canada: insight into sensory perception of berry wine and consumer preference;
- Develop a non-destructive model to assess grape maturity at harvest and progressing harvest maturity of Nova Scotia wine grapes.
Develop strategies for managing water and nutrients, and natural products favorable to health that can reduce competition between grapevine and cover crops and thus improve the health and productivity of vineyards
Medhi Sharifi and Francisco Diez
AAFC Summerland and Perrenia
This study focuses on water and nutrient management in Canadian vineyards. The specific objectives are:
- study groundwater retention technology (SWRT) and inter-row application of the biochar-compost mixture to improve soil water retention capacity and reduce competition between grapevine and cover crops in water and nutritional elements.
- To assess the effect of application rate, method and frequency of application of Vermi Compost (VC), VC tea and Stella Maris on yield, fruit quality, nutritional status of the plant and plant and / or soil health.
Nitrogen management in viticulture and enology: improving the quality of grapes and wine and the sustainability of vineyards through precise management of nitrogen and strategies aimed at increasing the nitrogen assimilable by yeast natural in grapes and wine wine
- Nitrogen management in vineyards: application of nitrogen to the soil and foliage to determine the impact and the relationships between amino acid profiles, the content of nitrogen available to the yeast, the quality of the fruits, the resistance buds and flavonoids (pigment and tannin); Evaluate the effectiveness of N application in alleviating symptoms of leaf curl virus, spectral imaging and management of vineyard N status accuracy using drone technology.
- Wine nitrogen management: assess field application of N and late foliar applications on wine quality, including amino acid profiles, fermentation kinetics, sensory evaluation, protein content wine and compounds related to nitrogen metabolism (eg flavonoids); determine the influence of the amino acid composition and of the additions of diammonium phosphate on the taste, the aromatic profiles and the fermentation kinetics of the wine; assess YAN requirements for icewines and high-sugar musts, respecting the latest findings on yeast nutrition such as biotin, pantothenic acid and other vitamin requirements.
Tannin alert: Improve the quality of Canadian red wine and its acceptance by consumers through winemaking techniques by grape variety and level of tannin
The main objective of this project is to improve the quality of Canadian red wine by ensuring that the phenolic maturity of the grape is incorporated into harvest decisions. The scientific knowledge of the Canadian wine industry regarding the tannin concentrations in the seeds and skins of grapes of varieties specific to the style of wine will be acquired. This will result in red winemaking guidelines tailored to the tannin concentrations in the Grape Tannin Database. The program will initially begin building a database in Ontario, but once established will expand to the rest of Canada.
Improving the quality of wine through mixed and sequential fermentation with indigenous yeasts
Lihua Fan, Marcia English and Gavin Kernaghan
AAFC Kentville, Saint Francis Xavier University and Mount Saint Vincent University
- to determine the species composition and relative abundance of native yeasts and MLF bacteria in selected vineyards in Nova Scotia;
- to characterize the microbial consortia in spontaneous fermentations of musts derived from these vineyards and to correlate this information with the structure of the corresponding microbial communities of the vineyard;
- to link the microbial communities of indigenous vineyards and the microbial communities of fermentation musts with the chemical properties and organoleptic qualities of the wines obtained;
- to study the competitive interactions between indigenous and commercial yeasts as well as between yeasts and MLF bacteria during fermentation.
Improving the Quality of Sparkling Wines and Still Wines: Preventing High Volatile Acidity, Honey Flavor, and Other Defects That Reduce Wine Quality Using Natural Yeast Isolates Native to Canada.
The general objectives of this project will be used to determine whether two undesirable "sweet / honey" flavors from ethyl phenylacetate (EPhA) and phenylacetic acid (PhAA) are present in Ontario pinot noir due to the sour rot, as well as in sparkling wines and still wines made from these grapes; to verify whether these compounds in red and sparkling wines are acceptable to consumers; and to verify if the natural native yeasts of Canadian vineyards are able to eliminate them with acetic acid. In addition, a natural yeast isolated from an Ontario vineyard will be tested for the production of red wine on a commercial scale.
Demonstration of the impacts of phytoparasitic nematodes on the health and productivity of the vine.
- Determine the distribution of the main species of plant parasitic nematodes (NPP) in relation to soil health indicators in representative vineyards of the Okanagan;
- assess the spatial co-variation of NPP populations with water stress in the vine, the symptoms of vine dieback in vines infected or not with the virus and the incidence of trunk diseases and crown tumors;
- using controlled field microplot inoculation to experimentally determine the effects of key NPP species and mixtures on the incidence and expression of disease complexes;
- to determine the presence and abundance of key NPP species in representative vineyards in Ontario, Quebec and Nova Scotia.
New approaches to integrated management strategies against cutworms in grapes
Kwantlen Polytechnic University
Develop an integrated pest management strategy that best uses nematodes to control cutworms in Canadian grapes.
Development of sustainable management practices for leafhoppers on grapes
- Identify Anagrus species parasitizing leafhopper eggs in BC and Ontario and search for their winter host plants;
- assess whether the provision of alternative winter hosts of A. erythroneurae may improve parasitism of WGLs in commercial vineyards;
- evaluate in the laboratory the deterrent effect of new herbal products against CLV and carry out field spray tests with these products and with the deterrent essential oils identified previously;
- to assess the effectiveness of new "milder" insecticides under field conditions;
- improve the precision of damage thresholds in relation to water stress and determine the effect of short-term and programmed deficit irrigation on leafhopper populations.
Mitigating Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle Infestations in Ontario Vineyards
- to evaluate the effectiveness of alternatives for the management of multi-colored Asian lady beetle infestation (MALB) using repellents such as potassium metabisulfite, kaolin clay and botanical extracts;
- evaluate the effectiveness of the optical sorter on harvesters for the elimination of MALB in the vineyard;
- develop best management practices for the management of MALB in Ontario vineyards.
Use of a ground cover to fight against soil pathogens in the vineyard
University of British Columbia
- assess the current impact of vegetation cover and disease management in the Okanagan wine region;
- develop ground cover mixes (and management methods) that reduce root diseases;
- test b) and monitor common grapevine diseases in commercial vineyards.
Grapevine crown tumor disease: Identification of a biocontrol and sustainable management strategy
University of British Columbia
- Agrobacterium vitis abundance test in nurseries of dormant vines;
- isolation of potential biocontrols against A. vitis in vineyards in British Columbia and Ontario;
- evaluation of potential biocontrols to prevent crown gall in a greenhouse trial;
- evaluation of organic amendments to prevent or control crown gall in a greenhouse trial;
- evaluation of compost and copper treatments to control crown gall in a commercial vineyard;
- evaluation of organic amendments, intercrops and copper treatments to prevent crown gall in an experimental vineyard.
From the nursery to the vineyard: implementation of effective control strategies against vine trunk diseases in Canada
Jose Ramon Urbez-Torres
1. Management of GTD in nurseries and young vineyards
- study non-destructive methods and evaluate molecular tools for efficiently detecting grapevine trunk disease pathogens (TRD) in nursery stock;
- assess the condition of local and imported nursery stock in connection with GTDs;
- determine the abiotic stressors favoring the development of GTD in newly established vineyards.
2. Management of GTD in mature vineyards.
- study and implement new and existing chemicals and / or biological control agents against GTD;
- study and implement best cultural practices to mitigate GTD under growing conditions in British Columbia.
Spatial characterization of terroir and other vineyard characteristics using GIS and imaging tools to guide the management of water and nitrogen precision and to detect infections by viruses and other pathogens
- update and modernize the Viticulture GIS and Vineyard Mapping Inventory for British Columbia and define soil texture classes for vineyard plots to guide irrigation and nitrogen recommendations based on the water and soil retention capacity. To determine the impacts of viticultural practices on carbon sequestration in the soil in the Okanagan and Similkameen valleys. Provide ongoing advice to Ontario and Nova Scotia on the use of soil definitions in GIS platforms to guide the sustainable management of water, nitrogen and carbon in vineyards;
- improve irrigation recommendations by studying the seasonal interactions of water stress with fruit exposure (handling of the plant cover) and their influence on the quality of fruit and wine (composition and sensory);
- develop methods for detecting water stress and the nitrogen state of the vine using drone imaging (thermal emission, multi and hyperspectral reflectance) to guide the precise management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilization . Nitrogen management studies will be linked to the activity led by K. Usher;
- develop methods of detecting infections by viruses (e.g. leaf curl), fungi (e.g. trunk diseases) and bacteria (e.g. crown tumor) in vineyards using multi and hyperspectral reflectance imagery. This work will be linked to the activities led by J. Úrbez Torres and T. Voegel.
Knowledge and technology transfer
Canadian Grapevine Certification Network
Knowledge mobilization and technology transfer initiatives will be accessible to users / producers in all provinces of Canada involved in the grape and wine industry in order to ensure their adoption and foster maximum impact. Through partnerships with academic, federal and provincial research institutions across the country involved in the industry, new knowledge and technology transfer initiatives will be developed and existing and effective pre-existing programs will be leveraged for this purpose. While each activity in this project has its own approach to ensuring knowledge and technology transfer, the RCCV will develop tools to complement this work.